The G-8 and G-20 meetings in Toronto have a long agenda of complex issues on which rich and developing countries seek a common approach to set out new governance rules. Topics include banking levies, financial regulation, currency controls and many others.
From Toronto, bad news: there will not be at the G 20 an agreement on the levy on financial transactions. The reason is quite interesting: rich countries like US, UK, France and Germany want it but there is a strong resistance from the banking sector; other countries such as Canada, India and China, much less affected by excessive speculation- due to their relatively more traditional and stable banking sector, do not see any reason to penalise their own banks.
On financial reform, the US administration will pursue a 'unilateral' approach. Just before the meetings, the Senate approved a package of financial reform, including a tax on banks worth 19 billion $ to prevent future financial crisis. It includes a list measures including tougher powers for the Federal reserve to oversee 'too big to fail' banks, registration of hedge funds and the creation of a consumer agency to regulate mortgages.
The second issue of contention concerned fiscal policy opposing fiscal consolidation to reduce debt to GDP ratios and the pursuit of fiscal stimulus to sustain recovery. The final statement reflects this compromise: 'Reflecting this balance, advanced economies have committed to fiscal plans that will at least halve deficits by 2013 and stabilize or reduce government debt-to-GDP ratios by 2016' . But Obama - supported (only) by India- warned the eurozone and Germany in particular that early cuts to public spending might undermine the signs of recovery. It is also significant that the final statement stated that Germany and China should contribute to growth in global demand : 'Surplus economies will undertake reforms to reduce their reliance on external demand and focus more on domestic sources of growth'.
The Toronto meeting reflects in fact the strategic division on the response to the crisis between the European 'doctrine' (stability and budget deficit reduction) and the US conception based on maintaining fiscal stimulus plans to sustain the recovery of their economy. The feeling is that nations are concentrating on their own economies ignoring global welfare and aid to the most vulnerable countries. Unilateralism in areas such as financial regulation and trade is unproductive. Uncoordinated financial rules may be self-defeating because of the need for regulatory arbitrage. Does it make sense that the US will pass its new financial regulation law but no agreement on the Basel III rules on bank capital requirements has been reached.
In sum, the outcome of the G-2O meeting has been deplorable, but not for failing to co-ordinate fiscal policy. This is the least of its sins; it has failed on the main issues which are decisive for better global governance.